By Christian Queinnec
This can be a complete account of the semantics and the implementation of the total Lisp family members of languages, specifically Lisp, Scheme and similar dialects. It describes eleven interpreters and a couple of compilers, together with very fresh suggestions of interpretation and compilation. The booklet is in elements. the 1st starts off from an easy evaluate functionality and enriches it with a number of identify areas, continuations and side-effects with commented editions, whereas even as the language used to outline those good points is lowered to an easy lambda-calculus. Denotational semantics is then obviously brought. the second one half focuses extra on implementation options and discusses precompilation for speedy interpretation: threaded code or bytecode; compilation in the direction of C. a few extensions also are defined akin to dynamic evaluate, mirrored image, macros and items. this may turn into the hot usual reference for individuals desirous to comprehend extra concerning the Lisp relations of languages: how they paintings, how they're carried out, what their variations are and why such editions exist. the complete code is equipped (and additionally to be had over the Net). a wide bibliography is given in addition to a variety of routines. hence it may well even be utilized by scholars to accompany moment classes on Lisp or Scheme.
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Extra resources for Lisp in Small Pieces
2 The functionality call/cc . 404 10. 12 Interface with C . . 413 10. thirteen Conclusions . 414 10. 14 routines . . . . . . 414 eleven Essence of an item method 417 eleven. 1 Foundations . . . . . . 419 eleven. 2 Representing items . 420 eleven. three Defining sessions . . . . 422 eleven. four different difficulties . . . . 425 eleven. five Representing sessions . 426 eleven. 6 Accompanying features . . 429 Predicates . 430 eleven. 6. 1 . . . . eleven. 6. 2 Allocator with no Initialization eleven. 6. three Allocator with Initialization . 433 eleven. 6. four getting access to Fields . . . . . . . . 435 .
E) (char? e) (boolean? e) (vector? e» e ) (else (wrong "Cannot evaluation" e» ) (case (car e) «quote) (cadr e» «if) (if (f. review (cadr e) env fenv) (f. overview (caddr e) env fenv) (f. assessment (cadddr e) env fenv) » «begin) (f. eprogn (cdr e) env fenv» «set! ) (update! (cadr e) env (f. assessment (caddr e) env fenv) » «lambda) (f. make-function (cadr e) (cddr e) env fenv» «function) (cond «symbol? (cadr e» (f. look up (cadr e) fenv) ) «and (pair? (cadr e» (eq? (car (cadr e» 'lambda» (f. make-function (cadr (cadr e» (cddr (cadr e» env fenv ) ) (else (wrong "Incorrect functionality" (cadr e») ) ) «flet) (f.
1. 1 packing containers To flesh out the assumption of binding, let's glance back at A-lists. within the previous interpreters, an A-list served us because the atmosphere for variables, easily performing like a spine to arrange the set of variable-value pairs. A variable-value pair is represented through a dotted pair there. We look for that dotted pair whilst the variable is learn- or write-referenced. That dotted pair (or, extra accurately, its cdr) is changed by means of project. For this illustration, then, we will establish the binding with this dotted pair.
Init) (define-syntax definitial (syntax-rules () «definitial identify worth) (allocate 1 s. worldwide (lambda (a* ss) (set! r. international (update r. international 'name (car a*») (set! s. international (update ss (car a*) price» ) ) ) ) ) The syntax of defprimitivewill be outfitted on most sensible of definitial; it is going to outline a functionality of which the arity might be checked. (define-syntax defprimitive (syntax-rules () «defprimitive identify worth arity) (definitial identify (allocate 1 s. worldwide (lambda (a* ss) (set! s. worldwide (expand-store (car a*) ss» (create-function (car a*) (lambda (v* s ok) (if (= arity (length v*» (value v* s okay) (wrong "Incorrect arity" 'name) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) As we've got turn into acquainted with doing, we'll improve the preliminary surroundings with the Boolean variables t and f and with the empty checklist nil, like this: (definitial t (create-boolean It» (definitial f (create-boolean If» (definitial nil the-empty-list) we are going to supply examples of predefined capabilities, one a predicate and the opposite mathematics.
Image < list-oj-variables> ) once we expand an atmosphere, there has to be contract among the names and values. frequently, there needs to be as many values as there are variables, until 15. convinced Lisp sytems, comparable to universal LISP, have succombed to the temptation to complement the record of variables with a number of keyword phrases, comparable to taux, tkey, trest, and so on. this custom enormously complicates the binding mechanism. different structures generalize the binding of variables with development matching [SJ93]. 1. 6. REPRESENTING capabilities 15 the record of variables ends with a dotted variable or an n-ary variable that may take the entire superfluous values in a listing.